| The roots are bitter, acrid, thermogenic, digestive, carminative, anthelmintic, constipating, anti-inflammatory, emmenagogue, diuretic, ophthalmic, expectorant and stimulant. They are useful in dyspepsia, anorexia, verminosis, diarrhoea, colic, flatulence, paralysis, inflammations, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, fever, strangury, vesical and renal calculi. It is used in cough, asthma, bronchitis, pectoral diseases, splenomegaly, epilepsy and cardiopathy. Leaves are anti-inflammatory, anodyne, anthelmintic, ophthalmic and rich in Vitamin A and C. They are useful in scurvy, wounds, tumors, inflammations and helminthasis. Seeds are acrid, bitter, anodyne, anti-inflammatory, purgative, antipyretic and ophthalmic. They are useful in neuralgia, inflammations, intermittent fevers and opthalmopathy. Bark is regarded as an antiscorbic, and it exudes a reddish gum sometimes used for diarrhea. Oil is clear, sweet and odorless, It also is edible and useful in the manufacture of perfumes and hairdressings.